今天開始在自學一門關於英文結構的課。
應用性很強@@"

語言的表示種類:


1. symbolic - 象徵式

a mode in which the signifier does not resemble the signified but which is fundamentally arbitrary or purely conventional - so that the relationship must be learnt:
e.g. language in general (plus specific languages語言, alphabetical letters字幕, punctuation marks標點符號, words詞語, phrases短語 and sentences句子), numbers數字, morse code摩斯密碼, traffic lights交通燈, national flags國旗;


2. iconic - 肖像式

a mode in which the signifier is perceived as resembling or imitating the signified (recognizably looking, sounding, feeling, tasting or smelling like it) - being similar in possessing some of its qualities:
e.g. a portrait肖像, a cartoon漫畫, a scale-model比例模型, onomatopoeia象聲詞, metaphors隱喻, 'realistic' sounds in 'programme music'聲音, sound effects in radio drama音效, a dubbed film soundtrack配音, imitative gestures模仿手勢;


3. indexical - 指示式

a mode in which the signifier is not arbitrary but is directly connected in some way (physically or causally) to the signified - this link can be observed or inferred:
e.g. 'natural signs' 自然現象(smoke, thunder, footprints, echoes, non-synthetic odours and flavours), medical symptoms 生病症狀(pain, a rash, pulse-rate), measuring instruments 量器(weathercock, thermometer, clock, spirit-level), 'signals' 指示(a knock on a door, a phone ringing), pointers 指南(a pointing 'index' finger, a directional signpost), recordings 錄像(a photograph, a film, video or television shot, an audio-recorded voice), personal 'trademarks' 個人標簽 (handwriting, catchphrase) and indexical words 指向詞('that', 'this', 'here', 'there').


euphemism - 委婉、婉曲法
pedagogy - 教育學
phatic - 日常生活慣用語


明日也加油v

參考資料:Semiotics for Beginners by Daniel Chandler
創作者介紹

■。深度。■

sdxxx 發表在 痞客邦 PIXNET 留言(0) 人氣()